Coins of Beneventum

As Rome began to expand its borders and establish sound trade relationships with other cites the need for a system of currency grew.   Though most of the money minted in ancient Rome came from Rome itself, many smaller cities produced money.  Most of the money minted in Beneventum was produced before the third, around the time that it was taken over by the Romans.  The same type of bronze coins, dated around 390 B.C., found in Beneventum were also found in Aesernia, Aquilonia, and Telesia which were all relatively close to Campania[1].  

Before coins as we know them now appeared, the Romans used small chunks of bronze called “Aes Rude,” meaning “small bronze.” These were impractical because they had to be weighed at every use[2].  IN 269 B.C., the Aes Graves was introduced. These were minted in various denominations and featured animals as its symbol.  During the turn of the century, the denarius is introduced, and along with it coins made of bronze, silver and gold[3].
The monetary system went as follows:

Gold: aureus, aureus quinarius     
Silver: denarius, quinarius  
Brass, copper, or bronze: sestertius, dupondius, as, quadrans

4 quandrants = 1 as                                                  2 semisses = 1 as
4 asses = 1 sestertius                                               2 dupondii = 1 sesterius
4 sestertii = 1 denarius                                              2 quinarii = 1 denarius
25 denarii = 1 aureus                                                2 aurei quinarii = 1 aureus[4]

There is no direct translation between denarius and modern currency.  Roman currencies would have changed values depending on time and location.
The face of Roman coins changed throughout the decades as Rome evolved into an empire.  During the Roman Republic, control of coin minting was given to the senate, and generally the coins minted in this period did not portray any images or names.  Eventually, mintmarks would start to appear on the coins to represent who made the coin and where it was minted.  After Rome became an empire, control of the minting was split between the senate and the emperor.  During this time, production became much more organized and mint production came under the control of one supervisor[5].

1.Michael Grant. 1972. Roman Imperial Money. Amsterdam: Adolf M. Hakkert –  Publisher. 13.
2.Grant. 13.
3.Grant. 13.
4.Grant. 10.
5.Barry and Darling Ancient Coins. 1996. (accessed December 7, 2008).
i. Head of Apollo coin. (image). < > (accessed Dec 2008).                   ii. Roman coins. (images). The Interpretation of Architectural Scultpture in Greece and Rome. Maryland: Schneidereith & Sons, 1997, 180.